Science and the Jewish Myth

Zionists design myth of Jewish genome
Jim W. Dean, Tehran Times 9-3-2013

 
On December 14, 2012, Dr. Eran Elhaik (researcher from the Department of Mental Health at Johns Hopkins University) turned almost two generations of Jewish genome research upside down. But he went even further. The young Israeli-American geneticist has charged former researchers with academic fraud, and he has the research to back it up.
How could those eminent Jewish scientists before him have been so wrong?
Easy says Dr. Elhaik: “First these researchers decided what conclusion they wanted to find, and then they set off to find evidence to support it… It is my impression that their results were written before they began the research. First they shot the arrow — and then they painted a bull’s-eye around it.”

 

Bad science practices
Eran Elhaik, Ph.D.

 
Elhaik1On December 14th 2012, my paper was published in Genome Biology and Evolution. The Missing Link refutes the Rhineland Hypothesis, which is the basis of all genetic research done on European Jews, along with 63 years of Jewish population  genetics that emerged at the early 50’s.
You may ask, how is it possible that so many people followed the wrong path for for so long?
In 2003, Dr. Kirsh’s work (Kirsh 2003) may provide some answers. She reviewed papers published between 1951-1965 by Israel, Jews, and non-Jews about Jews. She concluded that “During this period the Israeli human geneticists and physicians emphasized the sociological and historical aspects of their research and used their work, among other things, as a vehicle for establishing a national identity and confirming the Zionist narrative.”
Dr. Kirsh was very generous and avoid using the term “lied” or “cooked” as bloggers put it. Dr. Kirsh’s study reviewed papers up to 1963, but this practice never stopped.
With time, the bad science practices (i.e., lies and misconception) became more sophisticated (it took me months to figure it all out) but with time the amount of data grew rapidly and the lies became harder to conceive. Kirsh (2003) filled two pages with the bad practices of Israeli and Jews geneticists in their attempt to manipulate the data and the results so they will not conflict with the Zionist narrative.
I didn’t find it necessary to do a similar project because then I would run out of space. Instead, I focused on the supernatural element of the Rhineland Hypothesis and the fact that it was completely made up to support the narrative.

I hope one day someone will study the huge cost both in tax-payers dollars and health that the adoption of Zionist narrative (Rhineland hypothesis) cost the American people. Myths and religions of any kind are better left outside of science.
 

khazar1

 

The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry:
Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses
Eran Elhaik, 2012

 
The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and has yet to be resolved.
The “Rhineland hypothesis” depicts Eastern European Jews as a “population isolate” that emerged from a small group of GermanJews whomigrated eastward and expanded rapidly.
Alternatively, the “Khazarian hypothesis” suggests that Eastern European Jews descended from the Khazars, anamalgam of Turkic clans that settled theCaucasus in the early centuries and converted to Judaism in the 8th century. Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman Jews continuously reinforced the Judaized empire until the 13th century.
Following the collapse of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars.

Introduction

Contemporary Eastern European Jews comprise the largest ethno-religious aggregate of modern Jewish communities, accounting for approximately 90% of over 13 million Jews worldwide (Ostrer 2001).
One of the major challenges for any hypothesis is to explain the massive presence of Jews in Eastern Europe, estimated at eight million people at the beginning of the 20th century.

The “Rhineland hypothesis” envisions modern European Jews to be the descendents of the Judeans – an assortment of Israelite-Canaanite tribes of Semitic origin. It proposes two mass migratory waves:
The first occurred over the 200 years following the Muslim conquest of Palestine (638 CE) and consisted of devoted Judeans who left Muslim Palestine for Europe.
The second wave occurred at the beginning of the 15th century by a group of 50,000 German Jews who migrated eastward and ushered an apparent hyperbaby-boom era for half a millennium (Atzmon et al. 2010).

The competing “Khazarian hypothesis” considers Eastern European Jews to be the descendants of Khazars. The Khazars were a confederation of Slavic, Scythian, Hunnic-Bulgar, Iranian, Alans, and Turkish tribes who formed in the central-northern Caucasus one of most powerful empires during the late Iron Age and converted to Judaism in the 8th century CE.
After their conversion to Judaism, the population structure of the Judeo-Khazars was further reshaped by multiple migrations of Jews from the Byzantine Empire and Caliphate to the Khazarian Empire.
The Khazarian hypothesis posits that European Jews are comprised of Caucasus, European, and Middle Eastern ancestries.

 
Khazar5
 

Discussion

Though Judaism was born encased in theological-historical myth, no Jewish historiography was produced from the time of Josephus Flavius (1st century CE) to the 19th century (Sand 2009).
Early historians bridged the historical gap simply by linking modern Jews directly to the ancient Judeans, a paradigm that was later embedded in medical science and crystallized as a narrative.
Many have challenged this narrative, mainly by showing that a sole Judean ancestry cannot account for the vast population of Eastern European Jews in the beginning of the 20th century without the major contribution of Judaized Khazars and by demonstrating that it is in conflict with anthropological, historical, and genetic evidence.

The recent availability of genomic data from Caucasus populations allowed testing the Khazarian hypothesis for the first time and prompted us to contrast it with the Rhineland hypothesis.
To evaluate the two hypotheses, we carried out a series of comparative analyses between European Jews and surrogate Khazarian and Judean populations posing the same question each time: are Eastern and Central European Jews genetically closer to Khazarian or Judean populations? …
Our first analyses revealed tight genetic relationship of European Jews and Caucasus populations and pinpointed the biogeographical origin of European Jews to the south of Khazaria.
Our later analyses yielded a complex ancestry with a slightly dominant Near Eastern-Caucasus ancestry, large Southern European and Middle Eastern ancestries, and aminor Eastern European contribution…
We show that the Khazarian hypothesis offers a comprehensive explanation for the results. The Rhineland hypothesis could not explain the large Caucasus component in European Jews.
Our findings thus reject the Rhineland hypothesis and uphold the thesis that Eastern European Jews are Judeo-Khazars in origin. Consequently, we can conclude that the conceptualization of European Jews as a “population isolate,” which is derived from the Rhineland hypothesis, is incorrect.

A major difficulty with the Rhineland hypothesis, in addition to the lack of historical and anthropological evidence to the multimigration waves from Palestine to Europe is to explain the vast population expansion of Eastern European Jews from fifty thousand (15th century) to eight million (20th century).
This growth could not possibly be the product of natural population expansion. Because such an unnatural growth rate, over half a millennium and affecting only Jews residing in Eastern Europe, is implausible – it is explained by a miracle.
Unfortunately, this divine intervention explanation poses a new kind of problem-it is not science.

Jewish presence in the Caucasus and later Khazaria was recorded as early as the late centuries BCE and reinforced due to the increase in trade along the Silk Road (fig. 1), the decline of Judah (1st-7th centuries), and the uprise of Christianity and Islam.
The eastward male-driven migrations from Europe to Khazaria solidified the exotic Southern European ancestry in the Khazarian gene pool, and increased the genetic heterogeneity of the Judeo-Khazars.
The religious conversion of the Khazars encompassed most of the empire’s citizens and subordinate tribes and lasted for the next 400 years until the invasion of the Mongols.
At the final collapse of their empire (13th century), many of the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe and later migrated to Central Europe and admixed with the neighboring populations.
Prior to their exodus, the Judeo-Khazar population was estimated to be half a million in size, the same as the number of Jews in the Polish-Lithuanian kingdom four centuries later. Some Judeo-Khazars were left behind, mainly in the Crimea and the Caucasus, where they formed Jewish enclaves surviving into modern times. …

Another intriguing question touches upon the origins of the Khazars, speculated to be Turk, Tartar, or Mongol. As expected from their common origin, Caucasus populations exhibit high genetic similarity to Iranian and Turks with mild Eastern Asian ancestry.
However, we found a weak patrilineal Turkic contribution compared with Caucasus and Eastern European contributions. Our findings thus support the identification of Turks as the Khazars’ ancestors but not necessarily the predominant ancestors.
Yiddish, the language of Central and Eastern European Jews, began as a Slavic language that was relexified to High German at an early date.

 
Khazar4
 

Conclusions

Our findings support the Khazarian hypothesis depicting a large Near Eastern-Caucasus ancestry along with Southern European, Middle Eastern, and Eastern European ancestries, in agreement with recent studies and oral and written traditions.
We conclude that the genome of European Jews is a tapestry of ancient populations including Judaized Khazars, Greco-Roman Jews, Mesopotamian Jews, and Judeans and that their population structure was formed in the Caucasus and the banks of the Volga with roots stretching to Canaan and the banks of the Jordan.

 
Khazar3
 

Dore Gold, Haaretz 28-12-2012: “Despite all the evidence to the contrary, the advocates of the theory tying the origins of European Jewry to the Khazar kingdom have persisted. In many cases over the last few decades, it appears that they are motivated mainly by a hostile political agenda that aims to advance the delegitimization of the Jewish state, rather than by any hard, new evidence that they have been able to marshal to date.”

Dore Gold is an Israeli statesman who has served in various diplomatic positions under several Israeli governments. He is the current President of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. He also served as an advisor to former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu during his first term in office.

Haaretz says that it asked a number of scholars from Israel and the Diaspora – both historians and geneticists – what they thought about Elhaik’s article. All of the historians declined to comment on Elhaik’s work, arguing that they were not geneticists and lacked the expertise needed to comment on his work.
But every one of the geneticists Ha’aretz contacted also refused to comment. Some ignored Haaretz’s request and never answered at all. Other geneticists claimed they were unfamiliar with population research and therefore could not answer. Still others claimed they lacked the time needed to answer the question. (failedmessiah.com)

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